Reports & Other Publications

Causes and dynamics of mixed unskilled migrants trafficked within the Horn region. A study including Eritrea, Ethiopia and Sudan

Authors: Prof Dr Mirjam van Reisen, Dr Mia Stokmans, Selam Kidane, Rick Schoenmaeckers, Kristina Melicherova

This study of mixed migration and human trafficking explored its causes within dynamic information-sharing along the migration routes and across communities in locations where migrants or refugees are. This study was carried out in Sudan and Ethiopia, focusing on refugees from Eritrea withing host communities.

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Cash Transfer Programs and Post Trauma Services for Economic Empowerment of Women in Uganda (EWP-U)

Authors: Prof Dr Mirjam van Reisen, Dr Mia Stokmans, Dr Primrose Nakazibwe, Dr Bertha Vallejo, Selam Kidane

This study investigates the effect of existing government-initiated social protection programs (cash and in-kind) and trauma counselling on economic development in Northern Uganda. It also examines the effect of a counselling program developed for this study, the Self-Help Low-Cost Post-Traumatic Stress program (SHLCPTS).

ICT-based Psycho-Social Trauma Relief in Refugee Camps in Ethiopia

Authors: Selam Kidane, Dr Mia Stokmans

This study investigates the possibilities for trauma relief on digital devices in low connectivity areas. The focus is on Eritrean refugees in refugee camps in Ethiopia who suffer trauma and post-traumatic stress (PTS). A Self-Help Low-Cost Post-Traumatic Stress program (SHLCPTS) is developed for these refugees and tested.

Refugees and Livelihood: A case study from Hitsats

Author: Kristína Melicherová

This case-study investigates livelihood opportunities in Hitsats Eritrean Refugee Camp (North-Ethiopia), and looks at income generating possibilities for refugees. The study provides an overview of the positive effects of relief opportunities and addresses where improvement is necessary.

Secondary Migration and Mobile Phone Use in Hitsats

Author: Rick Schoenmaeckers

This case-study in Hitsats Eritrean Refugee Camp in North-Ethiopia outlines the mobile phone use in a low-connectivity context. It further looks at motives for, and incentives against secondary migration. The main focus is on Eritrean unaccompanied refugee minors and youth.

Livelihood-support and Trauma Relief in relation to Social-Economic Resilience in Northern Uganda and Northern Ethiopia   

Authors: Prof Dr Mirjam van Reisen, Dr Mia Stokmans, Dr Primrose Nakazibwe, Dr Bertha Vallejo, Selam Kidane

This is a summary of the quantitative findings of three studies regarding the effectiveness of trauma counseling on the Income, Capability, and Empowerment scale of Social and
Economic Resilience tool. The first two studies were carried out in Northern Uganda and the third one was carried out in Ethiopia (Shire area, refugee camps: Hitsats and Shemelba). These communities were selected because of their social economic vulnerability and high post traumatic stress.

This summary supplements the research reports of the studies.

Trust and the Triggers of Trauma: Exploring Experiences of Trust between Eritrean Unaccompanied Minors and their caregivers in The Netherlands

Authors: Prof. Dr. Mirjam van Reisen, Taha Al-Qasim, Carlotta Zanzottera, Rick Schoenmackers (Tilburg University, EEPA, Nidos)

This report investigates this situation in The Netherlands with regards to trauma and trust of Eritrean unaccompanied minors, for the organisation charged with guardianship of unaccompanied minors, the Nidos Foundation. The research was carried out in the framework of a broader programme, identifying critical elements to help increase resilience among Unaccompanied Minors of Eritrea. The research focuses on the high incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress in relation to the lack of trust between Unaccompanied Minors of Eritrea and their caregivers. The purpose of this report is to present the findings and the conclusions that were drawn as well as a set of practical recommendations.

Recruitment of Minors in Military Service and Armed Forces in Sudan

Author: Mirjam van Reisen, Tilburg University, EEPA
October 2017
This research focuses on the recruitment for military service and military activities of underaged youth originating from Darfur, the South-western region of the Republic of Sudan. It discusses the legal provisions and practices on the ground of the recruitment of underaged children in military service in armed forces in Sudan, especially relating to Kalma camp. This report focuses on the period 2013 – 2015 when the Republic of Sudan was implementing Operation Decisive Summer in Darfur.

This research is the result of a literature review and of interviews with experts, including
international experts.

Early Child Marriage, Sexual Practices and Trafficking of the Girl Child in Uganda

Author: Mirjam van Reisen, Tilburg University, EEPA
October 2017

The report was commissioned in order to provide background to the practice oearly child marriage in Uganda (Baganda ethnic community) and sexual practices related to underaged girls. This report is based on a literature review and information provided by experts.

The 2% Tax for Eritreans in the diaspora: Facts, figures and experiences in seven European countries

Commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs
September 2017

The purpose of this research was to understand the nature and the extent of the levying and collection of the 2% Tax by the Eritrean Government on Eritreans living in various European countries. The research found that the 2% Tax is perceived as mandatory by Eritreans in the diaspora and that non-compliance may result in a range of consequences, such as denial of consular services and punishment by association of relatives in Eritrea, including rights violations. It also found that the tax is potentially illegal in its application in practice, as it is, inter alia, collected using coercion and intimidation.

More information about this report can be found on the DSP-Groep website

Eritrese organisaties en integratie: Niets is wat het Lijkt

An English Summary of the report can be found by clicking here

Commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment
December 2016

The research report covers the Eritrean diaspora in the Netherlands and Eritrean organisations. The report found that mistrust and fear are abundant in the Eritrean society in the Netherlands. This fear impacts on the integration opportunities for Eritrean refugees. The research found a large impact by the Eritrean government’s ‘long arm’ into the Netherlands. The report found intimidation, surveillance, pressure for payments in the form of 2% tax and other contributions and even violence by the Eritrean government party PFDJ and its sub-organisations.


The Involvement of Unaccompanied Minors from Eritrea in Human Trafficking

160629-unaccompanied_minors_coverBriefing paper 2016
Author: Prof. Dr. Mirjam van Reisen

The ongoing and deepening tragic situation in Eritrea, which motivates these children to take such a hazardous
journey, and the desperation that underpins their situation, came as a shock, as did the vulnerability of these children to the trafficking networks.

The increased attention on Eritrean unaccompanied minor refugees underlines the need for a deeper understanding of the reasons for their vulnerability and the modalities by which they fall into the hands of trafficking gangs and (temporarily) even become part of them

Click here to read the full report


Decentralised Rural Energy to Meet the Energy Needs of Rural Communities and Farmers

engery-decentalisedBriefing paper 2014
Editor: Prof. Mirjam van Reisen
Publisher: Hivos
19 pages

Produced as a contribution to the debate on the EU’s planning for its development cooperation support programme for the period 2014 to 2020, this briefing paper sets out the argument as to why EU development support should give sufficient priority to ensuring that remote rural communities in developing countries get access to affordable, reliable and relevant energy supplies.  Since 1.3 billion people do not have such access, the majority of whom live in remote locations with little expectation for getting access to energy networks that are primarily focused around towns and cities, the paper argues that the installation of off-grid, decentralised solutions using renewable energy technologies need to be supported.

eusa_conference_paper_acp-euConference Paper
Baltimore, 11 May 2013
Presenter: Prof. Dr. Mirjam van Reisen
Tilburg University
13th EUSA Conference

As the Cotonou Agreement expires in 2020, both the ACP and EU side need to start looking towards future options. This paper examines what common denominators might be emerging between the ACP and the EU on their common future, if any. Observations are also presented on which may be the key questions to consider in a frank and open examination of the future potential of the ACP – EU special relationship

Click here to read the full paper


Authors: Dr. Daniel R. Mekonnen, Galway University and Professor Dr. Mirjam van Reisen, Tilburg University
Publisher: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee VRÜ 45

20 pages

The European Union (EU) is a leading global actor in development cooperation. Its development cooperation is subject to binding treaty obligations which guide the scope and extent of its foreign policy instruments. This paper examines the scope of legality of EU-Eritrea development cooperation under the relevant treaty obligations of the EU, particularly under the legal framework of the Treaty of Lisbon. Concluding that EU aid to Eritrea is indeed contributing to sustaining dictatorship in the country, the authors argue in favour of a revised policy for EU-Eritrea development cooperation. The authors also call for the EU to strengthen positive aid measures, such as helping refugees and supporting democratic organisations of the Eritrean diaspora, while ending direct support to the Government of Eritrea, such as bilateral aid, until the Government of Eritrea can improve conditions so that essential criteria (respect for human rights, democratic accountability, and the rule of law) can be met, as stipulated by the main EU treaties and the Cotonou Agreement.

Click here to read the full publication

Authors: Georgina Hrabovski and Joyce Haarbrinks, EEPA
Publisher: European Parliamentary Forum on Population and Development
24 pages

Girls and boys are treated differently in most of the developing world, with girls suffering far worse than their male counterparts in a variety of spheres of life, which include their access to nutrition, to basic health care and education.  There are 250 million girls living in poverty in the developing world with limited means to change or control the decisions that affect them. Girls are often taken out of school and forced to marry at an early age; they also bear the heaviest burden of domestic chores and are regularly engaged in unpaid and hazardous labour practices.

The EPF report with contribution from EEPA explores the social and economic situation of girl worldwide while also investigating the EU’s attention to the issue of girl through its Official Development Assistance (ODA).

Click here to read the full report


ACP 3D – Future Perspectives of the ACP Group

Author: Prof. Mirjam van Reisen
Publisher: Eminent Persons Group on the Future of the ACP
80 pages


Not available online

Authors: Prof. Dr. Mirjam van Reisen and Georgina Hrabovszki
In cooperation with War Child

Children and young people are highly vulnerable to and disproportionately affected by the effects of conflict, state fragility and war. They make up the majority of population in conflict affected countries, with around 1 billion children estimated to currently live in conflict affected zones.

The present report investigates commissioned by War Child Holland and War Child UK, provides an overview and assessment of the European Union’s actions on the CAAC (Children Affected by Armed Conflict) issue, while also giving suggestions on how such action could be improved.

Click here to read the full report

Can you think of a group of almost half of the countries in the world that delivers crucial commodities and does not have a real say in global governance? Well, it exists. And the group now wants to be heard.

thebrokerThe future of the largest inter-regional cooperation between the EU and the ACP states in the world remains incertain; The EU is like an old man sailing uncertain seas, is sending signals that it might not extend The ACP-EU Cotonou Agreement. However,  schemes of international cooperation are changing rapidly and the question is not necessarily whether the EU wants to extend the treaty but whether the ACP really needs the EU.Trading with non-EU countries might prove more tempting than receiving aid from Europe. And being more independent, ACP countries feel, strengthens their presence in global governance.

In the Special Report published by the Broker entitled “The old man and the seas-The future of EU-ACP relations”‘, Prof Mirjam van Reisen, EU External Policy Expert, discusses the future of the ACP and its relationship with the European Union.

Within the report, Prof van Reisen explores and examines the future of the ACP-EU relationship in the context of the ACP’s effort to establish a presence in global governance; the ACP’s opportunities to become a stronger, more independent group; and the new relationships the ACP is building with the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China) and other emerging economies.